i. Field Equipment – the foundation on which an effective Energy Management System is built upon. These are the measurement devices installed throughout the installation where energy transformation processes occur. Energy meters which measure power consumption were originally used but increasingly powerful power analyzers which measure a wide range of electrical parameters are being used.
ii. Communications Network – the mortar that binds an Energy Management System together, thru which measurement data from the field equipments are sent to the control system. Typically wired RS485 communication was used but increasingly TCP/IP, WiFi, ZigBee & RF are used depending on installation conditions and field equipment capability.
iii. Control System – the bricks in an Energy Management System, which enables measurements from field equipments to be compiled, monitored, recorded & reports generated. This provides a centralized control of the whole installation, so that it can be efficiently monitored, managed and maintained.
iv. Communication Network – secondary communication network with which information, reports and alarm from the control system is communicated. Wide range of possibilities include SMS, e-mail, Internet, LAN, GPRS & GSM.
v. Customers – The final and most important link in any Energy Management System. Any amount of reports, alarm, data and control comes to naught if nobody acts upon these information.